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Understanding the Components of a Monthly Mortgage Payment

For most people, buying a home is one of the most significant financial commitments they will make in their lifetime. It's essential to understand the various factors that contribute to the cost of homeownership, particularly the monthly mortgage payment. But many homebuyers ask: how is a mortgage calculated? A mortgage payment is not a single lump sum; rather, it comprises several components that affect its overall amount. In this blog post, we'll dive into the key elements that go into a monthly mortgage payment (besides just the cost of a home), shedding light on what homeowners should be aware of when budgeting for their dream home.


The principal is the initial loan amount borrowed from the lender to purchase the home. It is the primary component of your mortgage payment. Each month, a portion of your payment goes toward reducing the principal balance, gradually building equity in your property. Over time, the proportion allocated to the principal will increase, while the interest portion decreases.


Interest is the cost charged by the lender for borrowing the money. It is calculated based on the interest rate and the remaining loan balance. Initially, a significant portion of your mortgage payment will go towards interest, with a smaller amount dedicated to the principal. As the loan matures, the interest portion decreases, and more of your payment goes toward reducing the principal.

Property Taxes

Many clients ask us if property taxes are included in mortgage payments - and the answer is yes! Property taxes are levied by local governments to fund public services such as schools, infrastructure, and community development. The amount of property tax you owe is typically a percentage of the assessed value of your property. Lenders often collect a portion of your annual property tax bill monthly and hold it in an escrow account to ensure it is paid when due. This allows homeowners to spread out the tax burden over the course of the year.

Homeowners Insurance

Homeowners insurance protects your property against damage from events such as fire, theft, or natural disasters. Lenders usually require homeowners insurance to safeguard their investment until the mortgage is paid off. The cost of insurance varies based on factors such as the property's location, value, and the coverage chosen. Like property taxes, homeowners insurance premiums are often included in the monthly mortgage payment and held in an escrow account.

Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI)

Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI) is an additional cost that some borrowers may need to pay if they put down less than 20% of the home's purchase price as a down payment. PMI protects the lender in case the borrower defaults on the loan. The cost of PMI depends on various factors, including the loan-to-value ratio and the borrower's credit score. Once the loan balance reaches 80% of the property's value, PMI can be canceled.

Homeowner's Association (HOA)

Homeowner's Association (HOA) fees are another important component that can be included in your monthly mortgage payment, depending on the property you purchase. HOA fees are recurring fees charged by a homeowners association to cover the maintenance, management, and upkeep of shared amenities and common areas within a residential community or complex. These fees can vary widely based on the location, size, and amenities of the community. Examples of services covered by HOA fees may include landscaping, trash removal, maintenance of community pools or gyms, security services, and insurance for common areas. It's essential to factor in these fees when considering a property with an HOA, as they can significantly impact your overall monthly housing costs.


Understanding the components of a monthly mortgage payment is crucial for homeowners. By breaking down the payment into its constituent parts—principal, interest, property taxes, homeowners insurance, PMI and HOA fees—homebuyers can better understand how mortgage payments are calculated and develop a more accurate understanding of their financial obligations. And it’s easy to do - just use Google to find a principal and interest mortgage calculator and plug in the specific numbers for property taxes and HOA fees (if applicable) for a particular property to get your monthly payment amount. This knowledge helps homeowners budget effectively, plan for potential increases in property taxes or insurance premiums, and work towards building equity in their homes. By being aware of what goes into a monthly mortgage payment, prospective homeowners can navigate the world of homeownership with confidence and make informed decisions that align with their financial goals.

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